ICV 2015

A model study to measure fragmentation by blasting

Mouloud Nefis 1  ,  
Department of Mining Annaba University, Algeria.
Mining Science 2016;23():91–104
Accurate measurement of blast fragmentation is important in mining and quarrying operations, to monitor blasting and optimize blast design. A new digital photoanalytical method to measure the block size by using FragScan system is presented here. Photographs of the broken rock are digitized, and individual measurement, based on mathematical morphology techniques, achieves, within successive openings on a binary image, a numerical sieving. The method was tested during recent full scale blasting tests in the case of open pit gold mine of Amesmessa (Algeria). It shows great potential as a practical aid to predicting, monitoring, and controlling the quality of the fragmented rock.
Mouloud Nefis   
Annaba University, Algeria, BP1837 Sersouf Tamanrasset Algeria, 11000 Sersouf, Algeria
1. AIMONE C.T., DOWDING C.H., 1983. Fragmentation measurement results for fourteen full-scale production blasts: A comparison with a three dimensional wave code, Proceedings of the 9th Confer-ence on Explosives and Blasting Technique, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 310-333.
2. ALLEN T., 1981. Particle Size Measurement. Chapman and Hall, London.
3. BERGMAN O.R., RIGGLE J.W., WU F.C., 1973. Model rock blasting – Effect of explosives properties and other variables on blasting results, International Jornal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 10, pp. 586-612.
4. CARLSSON O., NYBERG L., 1983. A method for estimation of fragment size distribution with automatic image processing, Proceedings of 1st International. Symposium of Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, Lulea, Sweden, pp. 333-345.
5. CARTER J.W., 1977. Analysis of a simple photographic method proposed for determining size distribu-tion of ore fragments, USBM Laboratory Report RBM 77-03, pp. 1-19.
6. CHAVEZ R., CHEIMANOFF N., SCHLEIFER J., 1996. Sampling problems during grain size distribu-tion measurements, Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blast-ing-Fragblast 5, Montreal, Canada, pp. 245-252.
7. COOK B.K., NOBLE D.R., PREECE D.S., WILLIAMS J.R., 2000. Direct simulation of particle-laden fluids, Proceeding of the 4th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Seattle, Washington,USA, pp. 279-286.
8. CUNNINGHAM C., 1983. The Kuz-Ram model for prediction of fragmentation from blasting, Proceed-ings of the 1st International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, Lulea, Sweden, pp. 439-453.
9. DA GAMA C.D., 1984. Microcomputer simulation of rock blasting to predict fragmentation, Proceedings of the 25th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Evanston, Illinois, pp. 1018-1030.
10. DELILLE F., 2012. Search for a hole-by-hole fragmentation prediction method in application to open pit blasts, Unpublished PhD thesis, Paris School of Mines, Paris, France.
11. ENOR, 1999. Documentation sur la géologie du gisement dAmesmessa. Entreprise Nationale dExploitation des mines dor.
12. FRANKLIN J.A., MAERZ N.H., 1986. Digital photo-analysis of rock jointing, Proceedings of the 39th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Ontario, Canada, pp. 11-20.
13. FRANKLIN J.A., MAERZ N.H., 1987. Photographic measurements of jointing and fragmentation, Pro-ceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Field Measurments in Geomechanics, Kobe, Japan, Vol. 1, pp. 1-11.
14. GAUDIN A.M., MELOY T.P., 1962, Model and a comminution distribution equation for repeated frac-ture, transactions of the Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, Vol. 223, pp. 43-50.
15. GRANT J.R., DUTTON A.J., 1983. Development of a fragmentation monitoring system for evaluating open slope blast performance at Mount Isa Mines, Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, Lulea, Sweden, pp. 637-652.
16. HEYWOOD H., 1947. The scope of particle size analysis and standardization. Inst. Chem. Engr. Symp on Particle Size Analysis (UK).
17. MACKENZIE A.S., 1966. Cost of explosives – Do you evaluate it properly?, Mining Congress Journal, pp. 32-41.
18. MAERZ N.H., FRANKLIN J.A., ROTHENBURG L., COURSEN D.L., 1987. Measurement of rock fragmentation by digital photoanalysis, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Rock Me-chanics, Montreal, Canada, pp. 687-692.
19. NYBERG L., CARLSOON O., SCHMIDTBAUER B., 1982. Estimation of the size distribution of frag-mented rock in ore mining through automatic image processing, Proceedings of the 9th IMEKO con-gress of the Internation Measurement Confederation held, Berlin-West. Amsterdam, pp.293–301.
20. OUTAL S., 2006. Quantification par analyse dimages de la granulométrie des roches fragmentées : amélioration de lextraction morphologique des surfaces, amélioration de la reconstruction stéréologique. Unpublished PhD thesis, Paris School of Mines, Paris, France.
21. OUCHTERLONY F., 2005. The Swebrec© function: Linking fragmentation by blasting and crushing. Mining Technology. Vol. 114. pp. 29-44 ·.
22. ORGM, 1995. Rapport des travaux sur lévaluation de gisement Amesmessa, Office National de recherche géologique et miniére.
23. SCHLEFIER J., TESSIER B., 1996. FRAGSCAN: A tool to measure fragmentation of blasted rock, In: Franklin J.A., Katsabanis T (Eds.), Measurement of Blast Fragmentation, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 73–78.
24. SCHLEFIER J., TESSIER B., 2000. Fragmentation assessment using the FragScan system: Quality of blast, In: Holmberg, R (Ed.), Explosives and Blasting Technique, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 111–115.
25. SCOTT A., COCKER A., DJORDJEVIC N., HIGGINS M., LA ROSA D., SARMA K.S., WEDMAIER R., 1996. Open Pit Blast Design Analysis and Optimization, Julius Kruttsichnitt Mineral Research Center, Australia.
26. TESSIER B., 2008. FragScan, Prise dimages et échantillonnage, Principes généraux. Unpublished mem-oir, Paris School of Mines, Paris, France.
27. UNDERWOOD E.E., 1970. Quantitative stereology, Addison-Wesley, Reading Massachustts.
28. VAN ZYL D., 1986. An approach to oncorporate rock fabric information in blast fragmentation investi-gations, Proceedings of the Second Mini-Symposium on Explosives and Blasting Reasearch, Georgia, pp. 81-91.
29. WEIBEL E.R., 1980. Stereological methods, Vol. 2, Theoretical foundations, Academic Press, London.