Preliminary support design for underground mine adit, Artana mine, Kosovo
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Mitrovica Isa Boletini University Faculty of Geosciences Department of Mining Engineering
Trepça Joint-Stock Company, Artana Mine
University of Ljublana Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering Department of Geotechnology, Mining and Environment
Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University Faculty of Engineering Department of Mining Engineering
Eskişehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Architecture and Engineering Department of Mining Engineering
Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University Faculty of Engineering Department of Geological Engineering
Gzim Ibishi   

Mitrovica Isa Boletini University Faculty of Geosciences Department of Mining Engineering
Mining Science 2021;28:141–159
In this paper, preliminary support design of the main underground opening (i.e., mine adit) located at the Artana lead-zinc mine, Kosovo, was examined by using of empirical and numerical methods for safe underground mine opening design. In order to conduct field studies including discontinuity surveying and sampling for laboratory testing two empirical methods, namely rock mass rating (RMR) and geological strength index (GSI) were employed. For the purpose of determining necessary support units RMR system was utilized. However, empirical design guidelines for underground opening support based on RMR system failed to investigate the performance of support units; therefore, a 2D finite element analysis program was used to assess the performance of the proposed support systems. This indicated that RMR system might not be applicable for poor and very poor rock masses located in deep environment (i.e., 300 and 400 m). Moreover, this is linked to the fact that the RMR system does not consider applied stress. This study showed that when empirical methods are supported by numerical analysis, the preliminary support system design will be much more reliable.
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