GIS-based method for wind farm location multi-criteria analysis

Jan Blachowski 2  ,  
University of Wroclaw, Institute of Geography and Regional Development
Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Mining Engineering
POLTEGOR – INSTITUTE, Institute of Open Cast Mining
Mining Science 2014;21:65–81
The paper presents a GIS-based method for selecting an optimum location of wind farm on the case study of the Prusice commune in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The adopted multi-criteria approach utilises the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) methods to determine weights of sitting criteria (factors and constraints), and to develop a composite suitability map from single-factor maps representing these criteria. The adopted sitting criteria have been identified based on literature review, and include: technical, spatial, social and environmental aspects of wind farm development, and also address specific geographical constrains of this part of Poland. The most suitable and suitable areas have been presented on a wind farm suitability map for the commune. The area size of the largest suitable spots (14) varies from 10 to 64 ha. The proposed method and the results of this work can be used to support sustainable spatial policy and spatial development on all levels of public administration related to renewable resources use.
Jan Blachowski   
Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Mining Engineering, Wyb. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław
1. BABAN S., PARRY T., 200 Developing and applying a GIS-assisted approach to locating wind farms in the UK. Renewable Energy, Vol. 24, pp. 59–7.
2. CARVER S., 1991. Integrating multi-criteria evaluation with geographical information systems. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 5:3, pp. 321–339.
3. CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE, 2014. Local Data Bank. @ http://www.stat.gov.pl/bdlen/a... /strona.html?p_name=indeks, accessed 2014-03-28.
4. DJAMAI M., KASBADJI MERZOUK N., 2011. Wind farm feasibility study and site selection in Adrar, Algeria. Energy Procedia 6, pp. 136-142.
5. DROBNE S., LISEC A., 2009. Multi-attribute Decision Analysis in GIS: Weighted Linear Combination and Ordered Weighted Averaging. Informatica 33, pp. 459–474.
6. ESRI, 2014. ArcGIS 10.2.1 for Desktop Functionality Matrix, @ http://goo.gl/u1Yw5i, accessed 2014-04-02.
7. GMINA PRUSICE, 2011. Studium uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego gminy Prusice. Dokument przyjęty uchwałą nr XII/64/11 Rady Miasta i Gminy Prusice z dnia 8.06.2011 r., @ http://bip.prusice.pl/#Z2V0Q29..., accessed 2014.04.03 (In Polish).
8. HANSEN H.S., 2005. GIS-based Multi-Criteria Analysis of Wind Farm Development, Proceedings of the 10th Scandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Sciences, 13th-15th June 2005, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 75–87.
9. HAAREN R., FTHENAKIS V., 2011. GIS-based wind farm site selection using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA): Evaluating the case for New York State. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Re-views, Vol. 15, pp. 3332–3340.
10. JIANG H., EASTMAN J. R., 2000. Application of fuzzy measures in multi-criteria evaluation in GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 14:2, pp. 173–184.
11. KISTOWSKI M., 2012. A methodological proposal for regional-scale assessment of environmental conditions in relation to the establishment of wind farms, Geographical Review, Vol. 84:1, pp. 5-22, (In Polish with English Summary).
12. MALCZEWSKI J., 2004. GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview. Progress in Planning 62, pp. 3–65.
13. MALCZEWSKI J., 2006. GIS‐based multicriteria decision analysis: a survey of the literature. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 20:7, pp. 703–726.
14. MENG Y., MALCZEWSKI J., BOROUSHAKI S., 2011. GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach for Mapping Accessibility Patterns of Housing Development Sites: A Case Study in Canmore, Alberta. Journal of Geographic Information System 3, pp. 50-61, doi:10.436/jgis.2011.31004.
15. OGC, 2014. Web Map Service Standard, @ http://www.opengeospatial.org/..., accessed 2014.04.07.
17. SAATY T., 1977. A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. J. Math. Psychology. 15, pp. 234-281.
18. SAATY T., 2008. Relative Measurement and Its Generalization in Decision Making Why Pairwise Comparisons are Central in Mathematics for the Measurement of Intangible Factors The Analytic Hierarchy/Network Process. Rev. R. Acad. Cien. Serie A. Mat. 102: 251–3 http://www.rac.es/ficheros/ doc/00576.PDF, accessed 2013-12-03.
19. STEINAR F. (Ed.), 2006. The Essential Ian McHarg: Writings on Design and Nature. Island Press.
20. SYNOWIEC W., LUC M., 2013. A multicriterial evaluation of land suitability for wind energy develop-ment, as exemplified by Poland’s gmina of Rymanów. Geographical Review, Vol. 85:3, pp. 323-352, (In Polish with English summary).
21. SZUREK M., 2014. Multicriteria analysis for selection of the optimum location of wind farms in the Prusice commune. Thesis, GIS Postgraduate Study, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, (in Polish with English summary).
22. TAURON EKOENERGIA sp. z o.o., 2014. Energy from the Wind, @http://www.tauron-ekoenergia. pl/elektrownie/energia-z-wiatru/Strony/wiatrowa.aspx, accessed 2014-04-09, (in Polish).
23. UNIVERSITY OF WROCLAW, 2012. Meteorological Bulletin. Publisher: Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection – Institute of Geography and Regional Development, Wroclaw, @ http://goo.gl/ZQDC5i, accessed 2014-04-03.
24. The Act on Environmental Protection of 27 April 2001 (Dz. U. 2001 Nr 62 poz. 627) (in Polish).
25. The Act on Nature Protection of 16 April 2004 (Dz. U. 2004 Nr 92 poz. 880) (in Polish).
26. The Act on Providing Information on the Environment and Environment Protection, Public Participation in Environmental Protection and on the Environmental Impact Assessment of 3 October 2008 (Dz. U. 2008 Nr 199 poz.1227) (in Polish).
27. The Act on the Protection and Guardianship of Monuments of 23 July 2003 (Dz. U. 2003 Nr162 poz. 1568) (in Polish).
28. The Act on Spatial Planning and Development of 27 March 2003 (Dz. U. 2003 Nr 80 poz. 717) (in Polish).
29. VOOGD H., 1983. Multicriteria evaluation for urban and regional planning. London. Pion.
30. WBU, 2010. Study of the spatial conditions of wind energy development in the Dolnoslaskie Voivode-ship. Regional Bureau of Spatial Planning in Wroclaw, @http://goo.gl/vCyKB7, accessed 2014-04-02, (in Polish),.
31. WBU, 2012. Update of the Study of the spatial conditions of wind energy development in the Dolnoslaskie Voivodeship 2011. Regional Bureau of Spatial Planning in Wroclaw, (in Polish), @http://goo.gl/SSPn8n, accessed 2014.04.04 (In Polish).